Friedman, E.J. “Constructing “The Same Rights With the Same Names”: The Impact of Spanish Norm Diffusion on Marriage Equality in Argentina.” Latin American Politics and Society 54:29–59.

The photograph of the LGBT flag in front of Congress in Buenos Aires is depicted here, as it symbolizes the incorporation of gay rights in government. This picture also serves to demonstrate the solidarity of the LGBT community in tandem with Argentinian politics and state functions.

                Within Friedman’s article, it is argued that the rapid spread of LGBT initiative and the passage of protective legislation was primarily due to the political support from Spain and the model that it presented for Argentina. Spain’s efforts for marriage equality helped spark an intensive 3 year effort and is viewed as having such an influence because of the cultural similarity and feeling of solidarity between Argentina and Spain. Furthermore, this article focuses on the importance of “norm diffusion,” and that norms that are recognized globally, but not yet solidified through legislation depend on timing and approach in order for a successful inclusion legally and within society.

                This article is particularly strong in giving background to the social issues within Spain and Argentina, and very clearly outlines the relationship between the two countries; this is a significant proponent, as the push for LGBT rights in Argentina wouldn’t have been successful without help from Spain and their role as a model for change. While Friedman analyzes past events within Spain and Argentina to give background as to the path for LGBT rights, their article surpasses the importance of the use of media that it mentioned would be a factor between the two countries. Particularly, Freidman demonstrates that cultural change is possible within short periods of time through the organization of civil society and the timing from which change is enacted.  

            Freidman’s article is useful in observing and expanding on feelings of solidarity. This article takes the relationship between Argentina and Spain, and uses it as a model for the urgency and recognition of LGBT rights and the applicability of cultural solidarity in relation to political efficacy. Furthermore, Friedman focuses on the impact that non-governmental organizations have on political and social change, as the pressure that they inflicted caused, for the most part, a necessary change in government policy regarding marriage equality and LGBT rights. This is directly relevant to the question of idea of human rights as a practice of society, and gives insight into the moral and political effect that more influential countries can have.

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